The aim of this article is to analyse the main characteristics of the Argentine automotive sector and its performance during the first part of the twenty-first century. The article begins by describing the essential aspects of the links in the chain. It then provides a brief historical overview of the Argentine automobile industry from its beginnings until the convertibility crisis of late 2001. Lastly, it analyses the evolution of the sector in the subsequent stages, those of post-convertibility (2002–2015) and the Cambiemos government (2015–2019). This review is based on the specialist literature and different statistical sources. The article ends with a reflection on the structural difficulties faced by the Argentine automobile industry and the way these manifested themselves during the stages analysed.