The Uruguay Round of trade talks sought to bring agriculture and textiles progressively under the ambit of international trade rules and regulations. It also sought to extend the coverage of international trade rules to trade in services, intellectual property rights and trade-related investment measures. The implementation of trade liberalization programmes around the world has resulted in increased competition and the consequent exposure of many previously protected domestic industries to foreign competition. The decrease in the use of the usual barriers to trade and investment, i.e. tariffs, quotas, exchange controls, etc., has turned attention to domestic regulations, including those related to the environment, which are increasingly being challenged as a new category of barriers to trade and investment.