This document is consistent with the idea that it is necessary, on the one hand, to strengthen and broaden the population and development agenda in order to tackle the new challenges looming on the horizon, and, on the other, to further incorporate population variables into economic and social development policies and programmes and to improve governance in general and at all levels, which should include increasing the awareness of these issues among authorities and those responsible for economic and social planning. To that end, it puts forward diagnostic tools for identifying immediate priorities and tentatively explores future scenarios.The first part of the document examines the pending issues for 2010-2014. Recommendations are put forward for tackling the issues and follow-up, in particular by identifying the actions and priorities for closing the implementation gaps of the ICPD Programme of Action five years from the end of its formal implementation period. The second part presents resources and options for designing a strategy to maximize the impact and fulfilment of the population agenda beyond 2014. To that end, it highlights some cross-cutting approaches for tackling the population and development issues in the region and outlines some of the elements that should be taken into account when establishing agreements, goals, policies and mechanisms for following up the agenda.