This article examines the effect of training on competitiveness inthe manufacturing sector, drawing a distinction between industries withdiffering technological and productive characteristics. Using a systemicapproach, it studies activities within firms and the impact that traininghas on them, as well as the organizational and institutional environmentthat supports training and the effect of the latter on the locality as awhole. An analysis is performed at two levels. At the firm level (microanalysis);, econometric tools are used to study the manufacturing sectorin Mexico. At the regional level (meso analysis);, the electronics industry inone region of Mexico is studied. Empirical evidence shows that enterprisetraining has different effects on competitiveness in industries with differenttechnological characteristics. It also has a positive impact on the regionthrough knowledge diffusion.