What holds societies together? What identifies people and motivates them to live together voluntarily without the need for constant external coercion or immediate self-interest? At times of great uncertainty, crises and existential challenges, social cohesion assumes a central role in the progress of Latin American and Caribbean countries towards sustainable development. This publication examines the concept of social cohesion and offers an equality-centred theoretical approximation, a measurement framework for 18 of the region’s countries and a policy agenda for social cohesion, against a backdrop defined by a pandemic, uncertainty and challenges such as rampant inequality, mistrust of institutions, rising social unrest and different manifestations of violence. The conclusions call for the strengthening of some of the enabling elements of social cohesion, from a medium- andlong-term perspective.