This article considers certain dimensions of the quality of employment in Brazil, particularly in rural zones. It starts from the perception of changes in rural production relations and the repercussions these have on employment practices. A panel data methodology is applied to capture the determinants of job quality, and a quality
of employment index is proposed. Rural employment is more precarious than its urban counterpart, although the differences have been diminishing over time. In the agriculture sector, the economic growth of the 2000 decade merely resulted in the existing conditions of employment being extended to new contracts, without
any change in average quality. Rising labour income and education levels are important not only for enhancing the quality of employment but also as a strategy for overcoming problems such as heterogeneity between groups.