The social inequality associated with the current pattern of income distribution in Chile remains a subject of interest, as much remains to be learned about the trends in this connection in differing contexts. The aim of this study is to analyse the existing degrees of inequality and social polarization at the municipal (comuna) level arising from the current pattern of income distribution in the country. The measurements used for this purpose are autonomous per capita income and total per capita income. Seventy-eight municipalities in five regions of northern, central and southern Chile were studied. The results confirm the existence of a significant degree of inequality in terms of income distribution and a marked degree of polarization at the municipal level. These findings underscore the need for targeted income redistribution policies at this level to address inequality and polarization, both of which have been linked to social discontent stemming from the conflicts and social injustices that are created and intensified by these phenomena.