15 Apr 2019 CEPAL Review
This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the international position of national innovation systems. Data on patents, scientific articles, population and gross domestic product (GDP) for all countries for 1974, 1982, 1990, 1998, 2006, 2012 and 2014 form the basis for the application of this country clustering methodology. In addition to establishing a threshold between clusters (the core-periphery divide interpreted on the basis of science and technology data), it is possible to capture movement in thresholds, driven by technological revolutions in core countries. The result is a dynamic framework, which makes it increasingly difficult to implement convergence processes.