As population age structures change over the coming decades, the cost of providing public education, pensions and health care will change significantly. Falling child dependency ratios and increasing old-age dependency ratios will affect the number of people that receive education and pension benefits. The changing age profile of the population will also affect the demand for health services. This study analyses how public expenditure in these areas, in 10 Caribbean countries, is likely to evolve in response to these demographic changes. It describes how populations are ageing in the Caribbean and analyses how current levels of public expenditure are related to age structures in both Caribbean and OECD countries.