Small rural communities in the Aysén Region of Chile evince a variety of forms and types of social capital. The predominant form of social capital has evolved in accordance with changes in the national context and the gradual integration through communications. Having been an example of community cooperation, rural communities were faced with the challenge of relating to more powerful social actors on the broader stage of the region’s civil society. This change often resulted in autonomy declining and community factions being caught up in chains of clientelism. In 2012, however, the “Your problem is my problem” movement emerged to address the marginalization perceived in the region’s asymmetrical relations with central government. The mass civil disobedience this involved was grounded in three types of social capital and marked the emergence of a citizenship that spanned the region, thus meeting one of the conditions for fully democratic decentralization.