This document, which is partly based on by the study Impacto de la Infraestructura de la Calidad en América Latina, is a second joint effort by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the German National Metrology Institute (PTB) to move towards a more detailed understanding of the role played by the Quality Infrastructure in opening up possibilities for the countries in the region to innovate and compete. Through methodological analysis and the realization of case studies at the national level in certain countries in the region, the document seeks to offer a more comprehensive picture of the impact of the Quality Infrastructure and its importance for the economic and social development of countries. The document analyzes various QI related aspects, with particular emphasis on a review of conceptual elements, the role of the QI in the innovation systems of countries and a brief analysis of a set of case studies in Latin American countries. It also identifies a series of challenges and limitations for carrying out impact studies. These elements are taken up again in the final conclusions of the book, where a number of policy recommendations are outlined.