The first chapter of the book provides elements for analysing the outlook for population ageing and its inclusion in the public agenda, drawing on the development proposal advanced by ECLAC. To that end, it examines the central theme of the document: equality and ageing. The concepts are presented and analysed, with particular emphasis on the challenges facing social protection and solidarity. Next, the book provides a demographic overview of the region, illustrating the main population trends in the years ahead. In particular, it describes the demographic window of opportunity presented by an unprecedented situation in most countries of Latin America and the Caribbean: a falling demographic dependency ratio as a result of a decline in fertility. If the right decisions are taken, this is an ideal time to invest in expanding social protection and developing capacities in all age groups. Following this, attention is turned to income security and the increased demand for health care and social services. The main trends are examined and the State's responsibilities in terms of expanding and improving these benefits are identified. The book then focuses on the regulatory and institutional mechanisms for building equality, including the current position, how these mechanisms have furthered the equality agenda, and the obstacles to achieving real equality. Lastly, the document summarizes the headway made in implementing the Brasilia Declaration since its adoption in 2007, weighing up the achievements to date and, what is most important, helping to identify modes of action that could be consolidated or set in motion to fulfil the commitments undertaken in the San José Charter on the Rights of Older Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean.