Urban population growth in developing countries, together with the expansion of the middle class and increase in per capita income worldwide, have increased the demand for food. This article uses the method of constant market share analysis (CMSA) to identify the drivers of agricultural export growth among the main countries operating in the market. Two periods are analysed: (i) 1992–2001 and (ii) 2002–2013. The countries studied were Argentina, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India and the United States. The results reveal the increasing representation of emerging countries with natural resource potential (Argentina, Brazil and India), while developed economies (the United States and European countries) and China (owing to its particular internal dynamics) are losing ground in the international market.